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Water Quality of the Nile River

Water Quality of the Nile River

The quality of surface waters in the Nile Basin is influenced by both natural and human factors, with human influences having far greater impact. Although the chemical quality of the water is good, its physical and bacteriological quality is generally poor.

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Average Annual Potential Evapotranspiration in Nile Basin

Average  Annual  Potential Evapotranspiration  in  Nile  Basin

Evapotranspiration (ET), which is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration, is an important element of the water cycle. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water from sources such as soil

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Total Flows of the Nile River per Year

Total Flows of the Nile River per Year

The Main Nile Zone: This encompasses the downstream river reach, starting at the Blue–White Nile confluence at Khartoum. This large area generates virtually no runoff, and in-stream evaporation results in a net loss. River flow in the lower reaches is controlled by Lake Nasser, which is subject to significant evaporation losses.

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Regional Groundwater Aquifers in Nile Basin

Regional  Groundwater  Aquifers  in  Nile  Basin

As well as surface waters, the Nile Basin countries have considerable groundwater resources occurring in localized and regional basins.

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Nile Basin Boundary

Nile  Basin  Boundary

The term ‘basin’ refers to the geographical area drained by a river or lake. The Nile Basin, in the context of this report, refers not only to the physical drainage area of the Nile with its associated biophysical and ecological elements, but also to the people living within the basin and features of their social, cultural, and economic development.

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The Main Sub-Basins of the Nile River

The Main Sub-Basins of the Nile River

THE MAIN SUB-BASINS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE NILE billion cubic metres per year N The NBI is not an authority on international boundaries. (Map prepared by the NBI; source of data: Blackmore and Whittington 2008)

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Average Annual Rainfall in Nile Basin

Average Annual Rainfall in Nile Basin

Rainfall over the basin is characterized by highly uneven seasonal and spatial distribution. Most of the basin experiences only one rainy season typically in the summer months.

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Slopes in the Nile Basin

Slopes in the Nile Basin

From analysis of sediment accumulation in Sudanese reservoirs, the total load of sediment in the Nile is estimated to be about 230 million t/yr.

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Agricultural Trade between Nile Basin Countries

Agricultural Trade between Nile Basin Countries

With a growing population and increasing calorie intake associated with rising prosperity, demand for food in the Nile Basin is set to increase rapidly.

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Potential Soil Productivity in the Nile Basin

Potential Soil Productivity in the Nile Basin

There are 22 main soil types and nearly twice as many soil sub-types in the Nile Basin according to the FAO-UNESCO soil categorization scheme (see map opposite). increase rapidly.

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Land Cover in the Nile Basin

Land Cover in the Nile Basin

The Nile drainage network, which is described in Chapter 2, comprises many rivers, small and large. Among the bigger rivers are the Kagera, Nzoia, Victoria Nile, Semliki, Albert Nile, Bahr el Jabal, Bahr el Ghazal, Sobat, Blue Nile (Abay), Atbara (Tekezze) and Main Nile. The rivers are commonly fringed by gallery forests and herbaceous littoral vegetation. increase rapidly.

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